Glossary

Adulteration
Introduction of something to a food product to make it impure or inferior which may cause a health hazard.
Blood-borne Exposure
Blood or body fluid contact with mucous membrane (eyes, nose, mouth), or with broken skin (open cut, wound), or a needle stick injury from a sharp object contaminated with blood or body fluid.
Blood-borne Infections
Infections (e.g. HIV, Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) infections) spread through contaminated blood or other body fluids, including semen, vaginal secretions or saliva.
Certified Food Handler
A food handler that has successfully completed a recognized Food Safety training course, or an equivalent.
Closed
The term CLOSED means that a public health inspector found a health risk/danger and closed the establishment or service until the risks are removed. The service or premises will be re-opened once the public health inspector has determined that the health risk has been removed.
Closure Order
A Public Health Inspector will issue an order under the Health Protection and Promotion Act when there are reasonable and probable grounds that a health hazard exists. The closure order will refer to requirements that need to be met before the closure order can be rescinded and/or the premise can re-open. A person served with an order has 15 days to appeal the order to the Health Services Appeal and Review Board.
Cold Holding
Potentially hazardous cold food must be stored or held at 4°C or below to prevent the growth of harmful micro-organisms.
Complaint Inspection
An inspection by a Public Health Inspector because of a complaint received, as mandated by the Ontario Public Health Standards.
Compliance Inspection
An inspection where a public health inspector visits a business (or facility), usually unannounced. Inspections are based on the requirements outlined in the Ontario Regulations for Food Premises, Public Pools, Public Spas, and Personal Service Settings.
Conditional Pass
The term CONDITIONAL PASS means that the business establishment is not following all applicable laws and health and safety regulations. Items that pose a risk of illness must be corrected at the time of inspection.
Contamination
For food businesses contamination is the exposure of food to conditions that introduce foreign matter, disease causing microorganisms, and/or toxins.
Cooking Temperature
Potentially hazardous foods must be cooked to the following temperatures for 15 seconds to kill any harmful bacteria: Pork 71°C (160°F), Poultry (chicken, duck, turkey) pieces including ground poultry 71°C (160°F), Poultry whole 82°C (180°F), Ground Meat other than poultry 71°C (160°F), Other food mixtures and dishes 74°C (165°F).
Corrected during inspection (CDI)
Observed item does not meet minimum requirement indicated in the Ontario Regulations for Food Premises, Public Pools, Public Spas, and Personal Service Settings, but has been brought up to the minimum requirement during the inspection in the presence of the public health inspector.
Critical Infractions
Issues found during an inspection that present an immediate health hazard when not corrected. A re-inspection is required to ensure critical risk infractions have been corrected.
Cross-contamination
The transfer of an infectious agent from contaminated sources to a non-contaminated source.
Designated facility
a child and youth care facility, a children’s camp, a delivery agent care facility, a health care facility, a school/private school, a social care facility or a university/college of applied arts and technology or an institution with authority to grant degrees.
Disinfectant
A substance used on inanimate objects that destroys bacteria, fungi, viruses and some bacterial spores. Disinfectants are classified as high, intermediate or low level disinfectants.
Disinfection
A process that kills or destroys most disease-producing microorganisms, with exceptions of bacterial spores (see definitions for high, intermediate and low level disinfection). Disinfection should not be confused with sterilization.
Equipment seized/destroyed
An action taken by a public health inspector to reduce or eliminate a health hazard.
Food Contact Surface
Any surface, equipment or utensil that comes in contact with food during preparation or serving.
Food Handler
An employee who handles or comes into contact with any utensil or food during its preparation, processing, packaging, service, storage or transportation.
Food Premises Regulation
The Food Premises Regulation under the Health Protection and Promotion Act, sets out the standards that food establishments must meet. These standards relate to food handling, training, sanitation, dishwashing, personal cleanliness practices, and the physical setting.
Foodborne Illness
Also known as “food poisoning” can happen when you eat food that is contaminated with harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxins, or chemicals.
Hand Washing
Proper hand washing involves using warm water and soap, lathering with soap for 15 seconds, rinsing, and then drying hands with paper towels in a designated hand wash sink.
Hazardous Food
Any food that allows the growth of harmful microorganisms, generally food that is high in protein and moisture content. Examples include: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.
Health Hazard
A condition of a premise, a substance, thing, plant or animal other than a human, or a solid, liquid, gas or combination of any of them, that has or that is likely to have an adverse effect on the health of any person.
High-level disinfectant
Kills all microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and viruses) except bacterial spore.
Hot Holding
Potentially hazardous hot food must be stored or held at 60°C or above to prevent the growth of harmful microorganisms.
In Compliance
Observed item meets the minimum public health requirement outlined in the provincial regulation and/or guidelines.
Infection Prevention and Control
Programs and strategies to prevent and control infectious diseases.
Infraction (Food Establishments)
- Critical infraction(s) - Items that may lead to food-borne illness e.g. improper hot/cold holding temperatures, cross-contamination of food, inadequate hand washing, etc.
-Non-critical infraction(s) - Items that are not likely to lead to food-borne illness e.g. lack of hair restraints for food handlers, repair/cleaning of floors, walls, non-food contact surfaces, etc
Infraction (Personal Services Settings)
- Critical infraction(s) - Items that may lead to transmission of blood-borne and other types of infection (e.g. improper cleaning, disinfection and or sterilization, reuse of single-use items, appropriate records/packaging not maintained, inadequate hand washing, etc.).
- Non-critical infraction(s) - Items that are not likely to lead to transmission of blood-borne infection. (e.g. floors, walls and other structural surfaces or equipment not in good repair, personal items stored with client items, etc.).
Inspection Result
The outcome of the inspection is known as the inspection result. There are three possible results: Pass, Conditional Pass, and Closed.
Instrument classification
Equipment/devices used in personal services are classified into critical, semi-critical and non-critical depending on their use.
- Critical equipment/device: Tools that penetrate the skin and present a high risk of infection if contaminated. Example: needles.
- Semi-critical: Tools that contact non-intact skin and could penetrate skin, presenting a moderate risk of infection if contaminated. These require cleaning then intermediate or high-level disinfection. Example: nail clippers.
- Non-critical: Tools that may come into contact with intact skin and present a low risk of infection if contaminated. These require cleaning and low-level disinfection. Example: combs.
Intermediate-level disinfectant
Kills most bacteria, fungi, viruses and mycobacteria.
Internal Food Temperature
Cold holding, hot holding, and cooking temperatures are measured by their internal food temperature by using a probe thermometer to obtain the most accurate storage or cooking temperature.
Invasive procedure
A personal service that involves intentionally breaking the skin or mucous membrane, including but not limited to: tattooing, ear piercing, electrolysis and micropigmentation (permanent make-up).
Low Risk (Food Premises)
Food businesses that serve pre-packaged foods, or prepare and serve non-hazardous foods are considered to be low risk. Low risk food businesses include convenience stores, hot dog carts and refreshment stands. Low risk food businesses are inspected once per year.
Low-level disinfectant
Kills some viruses, bacteria, and fungi.
Moderate Risk (Food Premises)
Food businesses that prepare hazardous foods but require less food handling and preparation, and premises that prepare non-hazardous foods (i.e. baked goods) are considered to be moderate risk. Moderate risk food businesses include fast food restaurants, pizzerias, bake shops and small grocery stores. Moderate risk food businesses are inspected two times per year.
Non–Critical Infractions
Infractions found during an inspection that are not a health hazard and usually do not require a re-inspection. The infraction should be corrected in a timely manner before the next scheduled inspection.
Non-invasive procedure
Any procedure that does not intentionally break the skin (e.g. hair cutting, facial, waxing, threading, etc.).
Not in compliance
Observed items do not meet minimum requirements outlined on the provincial regulations or guideline.
Order
A public health inspector can issue an order under section 13 of the Health Protection and Promotion Act. An order is issued when there are reasonable and probable grounds that a health hazard exists and the requirements specified in the order are necessary to decrease or eliminate the health hazard. The order may include an order to close the premises or part of the premises (closure order), do work, remove anything, clean and disinfect, destroy something, prohibit something, prohibit the use of a premises or thing as well as other reasons. For details refer to section 13 of the Health Protection and Promotion Act.
Outstanding Critical/Non-critical Infractions
A premise that still has infractions from the previous inspection.
Owner/ Operator
A person who has responsibility for and/or control over activities carried out in a Food premise, personal service setting, tanning salon, recreational camp, pool, spa, or small drinking water system.
Packaging
Packaging materials are required during the sterilization process. The packaging maintains sterility of the processed item. Packaging materials should be designed for the type of sterilization process being used.
Pass
The term PASS means that the business establishment is following all applicable laws and health and safety regulations.
Personal Service Settings
A premise at which personal services are offered where there is a risk of exposure to blood or body fluids and includes premises at which hairdressing and barbering, tattooing, body piercing, nail services, electrolysis and other aesthetic services are offered.
Public Health Inspector
A public health inspector of a board of health who is empowered under legislation to protect the health of the public. For more information about public health inspectors visit http://www.ciphi.ca/careers/board-of-certification/
Public pools
A public pool to which the public is admitted. There are 3 classes of public pools:
- Class A - Pools operated: In conjunction with or as part of a program of an educational, instructional, physical fitness/aesthetic institution/association that is supported in whole or in part by public funds / public subscription; On the premises of a recreational camp, for use by campers and their visitors, and camp personnel.
- Class B - Pools operated: On the premises of an apartment building/condominium/co-operative/community property that contains six or more dwelling units/suites/mobile home park for the use of the occupants and their visitors; On the premises of a hotel for the use of its guests and their visitors; As a club for the use of its members and their visitors.
- Class C - A public wading pool, a public spray/splash pad or a water slide receiving basin.
Public Spa
Spas that are operated: On the premises of an apartment building/condominium/co-operative/community property that contains six or more dwelling units/suites/mobile home park for the use of the occupants and their visitors; On the premises of a hotel for the use of its guests and their visitors; As a club for the use of its members and their visitors. In conjunction with a child care centre/day camp/an establishment/facility for the care or treatment of person who have special needs, for the use of such persons and their visitors.
Rapid Reheating
Food must be reheated to the original cooking temperature within two hours of serving.
Receptacle
A container that receives or holds something (e.g. laundry bin).
Re-inspection
Follow-up visits are conducted to verify if an infraction has been corrected. Re-inspections may be required if the violation is considered a critical infraction, or as deemed necessary by a Public Health Inspector.
Reusable instruments
Equipment/devices used during the process of carrying out personal services that can be cleaned and disinfected after each use (e.g. tweezers).
Risk Rating (drinking water systems)
Public Health inspects high risk systems once every two years and moderate or low risk systems once every four years. Public health assigns a risk level based on a risk assessment of the previous inspection’s results.
Routine Inspection
An inspection where a public health inspector visits a business (or facility), usually unannounced. Inspections are based on the requirements outlined in the provincial regulation and/or guidelines and/or regional by-laws.
Sanitize
Reducing the number of harmful microorganisms to a safe level with the use of an approved sanitizing solution.
Sharps
Any item that is intended to penetrate the skin such as blades, lancets, razors and needles.
Sharps container
A puncture-resistant and leak resistant biohazard container specifically designed for the safe disposal of sharp instruments (e.g. needles, syringes, scalpels, razor blades). Securing and disposing of all containers must be in accordance with the requirements of the Ontario Environmental Protection Act and regulated regulations, and any other applicable law.
Single-use disposable items
An instrument or item that is designed to be used once and discarded because it cannot be adequately cleaned, disinfected or sterilized.
Small Drinking Water System
Includes the following:
- A drinking water system that could include a municipal drinking water system that does not serve a major residential development and that does not serve a designated facility;
- Every non-municipal drinking water system that does not serve a major residential development /trailer park/campground that has more than five service connections and that does not serve a designated facility;
– Every non-municipal drinking water system that serves a major residential development/trailer park/campground that has five or more service connections and does not operate to supply water to a development/trailer park/campground for at least 60 consecutive days in every calendar year or every period that begins on April 1 in one year and ends on March 31 in the following year;
– A non-municipal well or cistern based drinking water system that provides potable water to a food service establishment, a place that operates primarily for the purpose of providing overnight accommodation to the travelling public, a seasonal trailer park or campground, a marina, a church, mosque, synagogue, temple or other place of worship, a recreational camp, a recreational or athletic facility, a place, other than a private residence, where a service club or fraternal organization meets on a regular basis, or any place where the general public has access to a washroom, drinking water fountain or shower.
Sterilization
Process of destroying all forms of microbial life including infectious bacteria, viruses, yeasts, moulds and bacterial spores. Sterilization should not be confused with disinfection which does not kill spores.
Sterilizer
A device used to destroy microorganisms and spores using steam and dry heat. The device must be permitted for use by Public Health Services.
Ticket
Tickets are usually issued if infractions (violations) of the provincial regulation and/or guidelines and/or are observed by a public health inspector.